Mediation and moderation


  • Linear mediation model
  • Moderation

Learning objectives

At the end of the session, students should be capable of

  • Using the linear mediation model
  • discussing limitations of the linear mediation model
  • testing for moderating variables (interactions)



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Baron, R., & Kenny, D. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.
Bullock, J. G., Green, D. P., & Ha, S. E. (2010). Yes, but what’s the mechanism? (Don’t expect an easy answer). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(4), 550–558.
Imai, K., Keele, L., & Tingley, D. (2010). A general approach to causal mediation analysis. Psychological Methods, 15(4), 309–334.
Pearl, J. (2014). Interpretation and identification of causal mediation. Psychological Methods, 19(4), 459–481.
VanderWeele, T. (2015). Explanation in causal inference: Methods for mediation and interaction. Oxford University Press.